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// ============================================================================
// ==                                                                        ==
// == AMDiS - Adaptive multidimensional simulations                          ==
// ==                                                                        ==
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// ==  http://www.amdis-fem.org                                              ==
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// ==                                                                        ==
// ============================================================================
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//
// Software License for AMDiS
//
// Copyright (c) 2010 Dresden University of Technology 
// All rights reserved.
// Authors: Simon Vey, Thomas Witkowski et al.
//
// This file is part of AMDiS
//
// See also license.opensource.txt in the distribution.


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/** \file Element.h */

#ifndef AMDIS_ELEMENT_H
#define AMDIS_ELEMENT_H

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#include "AMDiS_fwd.h"
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#include "Global.h"
#include "RefinementManager.h"
#include "Serializable.h"
#include "ElementData.h"
#include "LeafData.h"

namespace AMDiS {

  template<typename T, GeoIndex d> class FixVec;

#define AMDIS_UNDEFINED  5

  /** \ingroup Triangulation 
   * \brief
   * Base class for Line, Triangle, Tetrahedron
   *
   * Elements in AMDiS are always simplices (a simplex is a Line in 1d, a 
   * Triangle in 2d and a Tetrahedron in 3d). 
   * We restrict ourselves here to simplicial meshes, for several reasons:
   * -# A simplex is one of the most simple geometric types and complex domains 
   *    may be approximated by a set of simplices quite easily.
   * -# Simplicial meshes allow local refinement without the need of 
   *    nonconforming meshes (hanging nodes), parametric elements, or mixture of
   *    element types (which is the case for quadrilateral meshes).
   * -# Polynomials of any degree are easily represented on a simplex using 
   *    local (barycentric) coordinates.
   *
   * A Line element and its refinement:
   *
   * <img src="line.png">
   *
   * A Triangle element and its refinement:
   *
   * <img src="triangle.png">
   *
   * A Tetrahedron element and its refinements:
   *
   * <img src="tetrahedron.png">
   */
  class Element : public Serializable
  {
  private:
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    /// private standard constructor because an Element must know his Mesh
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    Element() {}
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  public:
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    /// constructs an Element which belongs to Mesh
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    Element(Mesh *);

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    /// copy constructor
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    Element(const Element& old);

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    /// destructor
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    virtual ~Element();

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    ///
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    void deleteElementDOFs();

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    /** \brief
     * Clone this Element and return a reference to it. Because also the DOFs
     * are cloned, \ref Mesh::serializedDOfs must be used.
     */
    Element* cloneWithDOFs();

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    /** \name getting methods
     * \{
     */

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    /// Returns \ref child[0]
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    inline Element* getFirstChild() const 
    {
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      return child[0];
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    }
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    /// Returns \ref child[1]
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    inline Element* getSecondChild() const 
    {
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      return child[1];
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    }
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    /// Returns \ref child[i], i=0,1
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    inline Element* getChild(int i) const 
    {
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      TEST_EXIT_DBG(i == 0 || i == 1)("There is only child 0 or 1! (i = %d)\n", i);
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      return child[i];
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    }
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    /** \brief
     * Returns true if Element is a leaf element (\ref child[0] == NULL), returns
     * false otherwise.
     */
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    inline const bool isLeaf() const 
    { 
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      return (child[0] == NULL); 
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    }
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    /// Returns \ref dof[i][j] which is the j-th DOF of the i-th node of Element.
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    inline DegreeOfFreedom getDof(int i, int j) const 
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    { 
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      TEST_EXIT_DBG(dofValid)("Should not happen!\n");

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      return dof[i][j];
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    }
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    /// Returns \ref dof[i] which is a pointer to the DOFs of the i-th node.
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    inline const DegreeOfFreedom* getDof(int i) const 
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    {
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      TEST_EXIT_DBG(dofValid)("Should not happen!\n");

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      return dof[i];
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    }
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    /// Returns a pointer to the DOFs of this Element
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    inline const DegreeOfFreedom** getDof() const 
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    {
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      TEST_EXIT_DBG(dofValid)("Should not happen!\n");

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      return const_cast<const DegreeOfFreedom**>(dof);
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    }
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    /// Returns \ref mesh of Element
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    inline Mesh* getMesh() const 
    { 
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      return mesh; 
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    }
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    inline void setDofValid(bool b)
    {
      dofValid = b;
    }

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    /** \brief
     * Returns \ref elementData's error estimation, if Element is a leaf element
     * and has leaf data. 
     */
    inline double getEstimation(int row) const
    {
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      if (isLeaf()) {
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	TEST_EXIT_DBG(elementData)("leaf element without leaf data\n");
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	ElementData *ld = elementData->getElementData(ESTIMATABLE);
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	TEST_EXIT_DBG(ld)("leaf data not estimatable!\n");
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	return dynamic_cast<LeafDataEstimatableInterface*>(ld)->getErrorEstimate(row);
      }	
      
      return 0.0;
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    }
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    /** \brief
     * Returns Element's coarsening error estimation, if Element is a leaf 
     * element and if it has leaf data and if this leaf data are coarsenable.
     */
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    inline double getCoarseningEstimation(int row) 
    {
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      if (isLeaf()) {
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	TEST_EXIT_DBG(elementData)("leaf element without leaf data\n");
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	ElementData *ld = elementData->getElementData(COARSENABLE);
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	TEST_EXIT_DBG(ld)("element data not coarsenable!\n");
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	return dynamic_cast<LeafDataCoarsenableInterface*>(ld)->getCoarseningErrorEstimate(row);
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      }
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      return 0.0;
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    }
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    /// Returns region of element if defined, -1 else.
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    int getRegion() const;

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    /// Returns local vertex number of the j-th vertex of the i-th edge
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    virtual int getVertexOfEdge(int i, int j) const = 0; 

    /** \brief
     * Returns local vertex number of the vertexIndex-th vertex of the
     * positionIndex-th part of type position (vertex, edge, face)
     */
    virtual int getVertexOfPosition(GeoIndex position,
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				    int positionIndex,
				    int vertexIndex) const = 0;
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    ///
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    virtual int getPositionOfVertex(int side, int vertex) const = 0;

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    ///
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    virtual int getEdgeOfFace(int face, int edge) const = 0;

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    ///
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    virtual DofEdge getEdge(int localEdgeIndex) const = 0;

    ///
    virtual DofFace getFace(int localFaceIndex) const = 0;
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    /// Returns either vertex, edge or face of the element.
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/*     template<typename T> */
/*     T getObject(int index);       */
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    /// Returns the number of parts of type i in this element
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    virtual int getGeo(GeoIndex i) const = 0;

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    /// Returns Element's \ref mark
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    inline const int getMark() const 
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    { 
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      return mark;
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    }
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    /// Returns \ref newCoord[i]
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    inline double getNewCoord(int i) const 
    {
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	TEST_EXIT_DBG(newCoord)("newCoord = NULL\n");
	return (*newCoord)[i];
    }
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    /// Returns Element's \ref index
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    inline int getIndex() const 
    { 
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      return index; 
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    }
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    /// Returns \ref newCoord
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    inline WorldVector<double>* getNewCoord() const 
    { 
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      return newCoord; 
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    }
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    /** \} */

    /** \name setting methods
     * \{
     */

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    /// Sets \ref child[0]
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    virtual void setFirstChild(Element *aChild) 
    {
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      child[0] = aChild;
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    }
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    /// Sets \ref child[1]
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    virtual void setSecondChild(Element *aChild) 
    {
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      child[1] = aChild;
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    }
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    /// Sets \ref elementData of Element
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    void setElementData(ElementData* ed) 
    {
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      elementData = ed;
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    }
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    /** \brief
     * Sets \ref newCoord of Element. Needed by refinement, if Element has a
     * boundary edge on a curved boundary.
     */
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    inline void setNewCoord(WorldVector<double>* coord) 
    {
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      newCoord = coord;
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    }
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    /// Sets \ref mesh.
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    inline void setMesh(Mesh *m) 
    {
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      mesh = m;
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    }
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    /// Sets the pointer to the DOFs of the i-th node of Element
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    inline void setDof(int pos, DegreeOfFreedom* p) 
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    {
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      dof[pos] = p;
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    }
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    /** \brief
     * Checks whether Element is a leaf element and whether it has leaf data.
     * If the checks don't fail, leaf data's error estimation is set to est.
     */
    inline void setEstimation(double est, int row)
    {
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      FUNCNAME("Element::setEstimation()");

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      if (isLeaf()) {
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	TEST_EXIT_DBG(elementData)("Leaf element %d without leaf data!\n", index);
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	ElementData *ld = elementData->getElementData(ESTIMATABLE);
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	TEST_EXIT_DBG(ld)("Leaf data %d not estimatable!\n", index);
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	dynamic_cast<LeafDataEstimatableInterface*>(ld)->
	  setErrorEstimate(row, est);
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      } else {
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	ERROR_EXIT("setEstimation only for leaf elements!\n");
      }
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    }
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    /** \brief
     * Sets Element's coarsening error estimation, if Element is a leaf element
     * and if it has leaf data and if this leaf data are coarsenable.
     */
    inline void setCoarseningEstimation(double est, int row)
    {
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      if (isLeaf()) {
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	TEST_EXIT_DBG(elementData)("leaf element without leaf data\n");
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	ElementData *ld = elementData->getElementData(COARSENABLE);
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	TEST_EXIT_DBG(ld)("leaf data not coarsenable\n");
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	dynamic_cast<LeafDataCoarsenableInterface*>(ld)->
	  setCoarseningErrorEstimate(row, est);
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      } else {
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	ERROR_EXIT("setEstimation only for leaf elements!\n");
      }
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    }
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    /// Sets Elements \ref mark = mark + 1;
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    inline void incrementMark() 
    {
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      mark++;
    }
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    /// Sets Elements \ref mark = mark - 1;
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    inline void decrementMark() 
    {
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      if (0 < mark) 
	mark--;
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    }
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    /// Sets Element's \ref mark
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    inline void setMark(int m) 
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    {
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      mark = m;
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    }
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    /** \} */


    /** \name pure virtual methods 
     * \{ 
     */

    /** \brief
     * orient the vertices of edges/faces.
     * Used by Estimator for the jumps => same quadrature nodes from both sides!
     */
    virtual const FixVec<int,WORLD>& 
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      sortFaceIndices(int face, FixVec<int, WORLD> *vec) const = 0;
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    /// Returns a copy of itself. Needed by Mesh to create Elements by a prototype. 
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    virtual Element *clone() = 0;

    /** \brief
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     * Returns which side of child[childnr] corresponds to side sidenr of this 
     * Element. If the child has no corresponding side, the return value is negative. 
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     */
    virtual int getSideOfChild(int childnr, int sidenr, int elType = 0) const = 0;

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    /** \brief
     * Generalization of \ref getSideOfChild to arbitrary subObject. Thus, e.g., in 3d
     * we can ask for the local id of a verte, edge or face on the elements children.
     *
     * \param[in]  childnr    Either 0 or 1 for the left or right children.
     * \param[in]  subObj     Defines whether we ask for VERTEX, EDGE or FACE.
     * \param[in]  ithObj     Number of the object on the parent.
     * \param[in]  elType     Type of the element. Important only in 3D.
     */
    virtual int getSubObjOfChild(int childnr, GeoIndex subObj, int ithObj, 
				 int elType = 0) const = 0;

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    /** \brief
     * Returns which vertex of elements parent corresponds to the vertexnr of
     * the element, if the element is the childnr-th child of the parent.
     * If the vertex is the ner vertex at the refinement edge, -1 is returned.
     */
    virtual int getVertexOfParent(int childnr, int vertexnr, int elType = 0) const = 0;

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    /// Returns whether Element is a Line
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    virtual bool isLine() const = 0;

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    /// Returns whether Element is a Triangle
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    virtual bool isTriangle() const = 0;

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    /// Returns whether Element is a Tetrahedron
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    virtual bool isTetrahedron() const = 0;

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    /// Returns whether Element has sideElem as one of its sides.
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    virtual bool hasSide(Element *sideElem) const = 0;

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    /** \brief
     * Returns for a given element type number the element type number of the children.
     * For 1d and 2d this is always 0, because element type number are used in the 
     * 3d case only.
     */
    virtual int getChildType(int elType) const = 0;

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    /** \brief
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     * Traverses an edge/face of a given element (this includes also all children of 
     * the element having the same edge/face). All vertex dofs alonge this edge/face
     * are assembled and put together to a list. 
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     *
     * \param[in]  feSpace         FE space which is used to get the dofs.
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     * \param[in]  bound           Defines the edge/face of the element on which
     *                             all vertex dofs are assembled.
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     * \param[out] dofs            List of dofs, where the result is stored.
     */
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    virtual void getVertexDofs(FiniteElemSpace* feSpace, 
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			       BoundaryObject bound,
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			       DofContainer& dofs) const = 0;
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    /** \brief
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     * Traverses an edge/face of a given element (this includes also all children of 
     * the element having the same edge/face). All non vertex dofs alonge this edge/face 
     * are assembled and put together to a list.
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     *
     * \param[in]  feSpace         FE space which is used to get the dofs.
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     * \param[in]  bound           Defines the edge/face of the element on which
     *                             all non vertex dofs are assembled.
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     * \param[out] dofs            All dofs are put to this dof list.
     */
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    virtual void getNonVertexDofs(FiniteElemSpace* feSpace, 
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				  BoundaryObject bound,
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				  DofContainer& dofs) const = 0;


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    /** \} */

    // ===== other public methods =================================================

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    /// assignment operator
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    Element& operator=(const Element& el);
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    /** \brief
     * Checks whether the face with vertices dof[0],..,dof[DIM-1] is
     * part of mel's boundary. returns the opposite vertex if true, -1 else
     */
    int oppVertex(FixVec<DegreeOfFreedom*, DIMEN> pdof) const;

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    /// Refines Element's leaf data
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    inline void refineElementData(Element* child1, Element* child2, int elType = 0) 
    {
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      if (elementData) {
	bool remove = elementData->refineElementData(this, child1, child2, elType);
	if (remove) {
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	  ElementData *tmp = elementData->getDecorated();
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	  delete elementData;
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	  elementData = tmp;
	}
      }
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    }
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    /// Coarsens Element's leaf data
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    inline void coarsenElementData(Element* child1, Element* child2, int elType = 0) 
    {
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      ElementData *childData;
      childData = child1->getElementData();
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      if (childData) {
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	childData->coarsenElementData(this, child1, child2, elType);
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	delete childData;
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	child1->setElementData(NULL);
      }
      childData = child2->getElementData();
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      if (childData) {
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	childData->coarsenElementData(this, child2, child1, elType);
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	delete childData;
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	child2->setElementData(NULL);
      }
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    }
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    /// Returns pointer to \ref elementData
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    inline ElementData* getElementData() const 
    {
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      return elementData;
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    }
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    ///
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    inline ElementData* getElementData(int typeID) const 
    {
      if (elementData)
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	return elementData->getElementData(typeID);
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      return NULL;
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    }
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    /// Deletes the \ref elementData with a specific typeID.
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    bool deleteElementData(int typeID);
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    /** \brief
     * Returns whether element is refined at side side
     * el1, el2 are the corresponding children. 
     * (not neccessarly the direct children!)
     * elementTyp is the type of this element (comes from ElInfo)
     */
    bool isRefinedAtSide(int side, Element *el1, Element *el2, 
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			 unsigned char elementTyp = 255);
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    /// Returns whether Element's \ref newCoord is set
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    inline bool isNewCoordSet() const 
    { 
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      return (newCoord != NULL);
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    }
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    /// Frees memory for \ref newCoord
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    void eraseNewCoord();
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    /// Serialize the element to a file.
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    void serialize(std::ostream &out);
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    /// Deserialize an element from a file.
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    void deserialize(std::istream &in);
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    /// Sets Element's \ref dof pointer.
    void createNewDofPtrs();
 
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  protected:
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    /// Sets Element's \ref index. Used by friend class Mesh.
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    inline void setIndex(int i) 
    {
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      index = i;
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    }
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    /// Used by friend class Mesh while dofCompress
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    void newDofFct1(const DOFAdmin*, std::vector<int>&);
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    /// Used by friend class Mesh while dofCompress
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    void newDofFct2(const DOFAdmin*);

    /// Changes old dofs to negative new dofs
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    void changeDofs1(const DOFAdmin* admin, std::vector<int>& newDofIndex,
		     int n0, int nd0, int nd, int pos);
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    /// Changes negative new dofs to positive
    void changeDofs2(int n0, int nd0, int nd, int pos);
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  protected:
    /** \brief
     * Pointers to the two children of interior elements of the tree. Pointers
     * to NULL for leaf elements.
     */
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    Element *child[2];
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    /** \brief
     * Vector of pointers to DOFs. These pointers must be available for elements
     * vertices (for the geometric description of the mesh). There my be pointers
     * for the edges, for faces and for the center of an element. They are 
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     * ordered the following way: The first N_VERTICES entries correspond to the
     * DOFs at the vertices of the element. The next ones are those at the edges,
     * if present, then those at the faces, if present, and then those at the 
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     * barycenter, if present.
     */
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    DegreeOfFreedom **dof;
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    /** \brief
     * Unique global index of the element. these indices are not strictly ordered
     * and may be larger than the number of elements in the binary tree (the list
     * of indices may have holes after coarsening).
     */
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    int index;
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    /** \brief
     * Marker for refinement and coarsening. if mark is positive for a leaf
     * element, this element is refined mark times. if mark is negative for
     * a leaf element, this element is coarsened -mark times.
     */
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    int mark;
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    /** \brief
     * If the element has a boundary edge on a curved boundary, this is a pointer
     * to the coordinates of the new vertex that is created due to the refinement
     * of the element, otherwise it is a NULL pointer. Thus coordinate 
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     * information can be also produced by the traversal routines in the case of 
     * curved boundary.
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     */
    WorldVector<double> *newCoord;

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    /// Pointer to the Mesh this element belongs to
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    Mesh* mesh;
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    /// Pointer to Element's leaf data
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    ElementData* elementData;
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    /** \brief
     * Is true, if the DOF pointers are valid. In sequential computations this
     * is always the case. In parallel computations all macro elements are stored
     * in memory though not all of them are part of the mesh (because they are owned
     * by another rank). In this case, there are no valid DOFs on the element. 
     */
    bool dofValid;

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    /** \brief
     * This map is used for deletion of all DOFs of all elements of a mesh. Once
     * a DOF-vector (all DOFS at a node, edge, etc.) is deleted, its address is
     * added to this map to note not to delete it a second time.
     */
    static std::map<DegreeOfFreedom*, bool> deletedDOFs;
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    friend class Mesh;
  };
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  /// Writes the element hierarchie to a Graphviz dot-file. Using the dot-tool from
  /// Graphvis, this dot-file can be converted to a ps-file. Useful for debugging!
  void writeDotFile(Element *el, std::string filename, int maxLevels = -1);
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}

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#include "Element.hh"

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#endif  // AMDIS_ELEMENT_H